Pelepasliaran

Melepasliarkan orangutan yang telah direhabilitasi tidak semudah yang dibayangkan banyak orang. Aktivitas ini tidaklah sekedar membuka kandang dan membiarkan mereka melenggang masuk ke hutan. Ingatlah, bahwa para orangutan ini telah menghabiskan sebagian besar hidupnya bersama manusia. Ketika mereka datang ke pusat-pusat rehabilitasi Yayasan BOS, mereka telah kehilangan hampir seluruh kemampuan alaminya untuk hidup di alam bebas.

Di pusat rehabilitasi, tim di BOSF harus melatih mereka untuk menjadi ‘liar’ kembali, selama 7 hingga 14 tahun. Dan setelah melalui semua tahapan rehabilitasi yang panjang dan komprehensif di pusat rehabilitasi, serta lulus berbagai tes kesehatan, banyak dari mereka yang kini sudah bisa dilepasliarkan. Meski begitu, kemampuan para orangutan ex-rehab ini tetap tidak bisa menandingi kemampuan orangutan liar yang lahir dan besar di hutan. Karenanya, orangutan ex-rehab tidak bisa dilepasliarkan di hutan di mana terdapat populasi orangutan liar yang cukup besar, karena orangutan ex-rehab akan kalah berkompetisi dengan orangutan liar.

Secara umum, kriteria untuk melepasliarkan orangutan termasuk:

  1. Mereka harus dilepasliarkan di area di mana dalam rentang periode tertentu, tidak ditemukan adanya populasi orangutan liar atau populasi orangutan liarnya sangat rendah (0.1 individu per kilometer-persegi).
  2. Lokasi pelepasliaran harus merupakan hutan dataran rendah (maksimal 900 mdpl), sementara kita tahu, akibat konversi lahan dan perusakan hutan, hutan yang sehat di Indonesia sebagian besar kini hanya tersisa di dataran tinggi.
  3. Hutan harus aman; sejauh mungkin dari pemukiman manusia, namun dapat dicapai oleh tim kami yang akan melakukan kegiatan pelepasliaran dan pemantauan pasca-pelepasliaran.
  4. Orangutan harus lulus berbagai pemeriksaan kesehatan. Mereka harus bebas dari penyakit-penyakit fatal, terutama penyakit-penyakit yang tidak ditemui di alam (sehingga orangutan tidak dapat menemukan obatnya di hutan).
  5. Orangutan harus dilepasliarkan di daerah asal sub-spesiesnya – artinya mereka tidak dapat dilepasliarkan di hutan mana saja. Orangutan asal Kalimantan Timur harus dilepaskan di hutan Kalimantan Timur. Orangutan asal Kalimantan Tengah harus dilepaskan di hutan Kalimantan Tengah. Dan orangutan asal Kalimantan Barat harus dilepaskan di hutan Kalimantan Barat. Maka setiap orangutan, khususnya kandidat pelepasliaran, harus melalui tes DNA untuk mengetahui sub-spesiesnya.

Menemukan hutan dengan kriteria-kriteria di atas selama ini masih menjadi tantangan terbesar kami. Setelah dilepasliarkan pun, tantangan baru menanti. Para orangutan ex-rehab ini harus dimonitor minimal selama satu tahun untuk memastikan bahwa mereka sudah bisa hidup di hutan. Itu sebabnya program reintroduksi ini merupakan program yang sangat berat dan membutuhkan biaya yang sangat banyak. Selain itu, diperlukan pula lebih banyak lahan hutan yang dapat dijadikan area konsesi yang aman dan layak bagi orangutan untuk memastikan kesuksesan jangka panjang.

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